The constitution is the document that is the basis of many of our federal laws which also contain the bill of rights.
Statute A law passed by a legislature.
Statute of limitations The time within which a lawsuit must be filed or a criminal prosecution begun. The deadline can vary, depending on the type of civil case or the crime charged.
Lapsed gift - A gift made in a will to a party who has died prior to the will-makers death
Notary Public - A public officer whose function it is to administer oaths, to attest and certify documents, and to take acknowledgments
Pour-Over Will - A will that leaves some or all estate assets to a trust established before the will-maker's death.
Equitable Pertaining to civil suits in equity rather than in law. In English legal history, the courts of law could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy see damages . A separate court of equity could order someone to do something or to cease to do something e.g., injunction . In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in law cases but not in equity cases.
Equity The value of a debtor's interest in property that remains after liens and other creditors' interests are considered.
In forma pauperis In the manner of a pauper. Permission given by the court to a person to file a case without payment of the required court fees because the person cannot pay them.
Information A formal accusation by a government attorney that the defendant committed a misdemeanor. See also indictment.
Larceny - Obtaining property by fraud or deceit
Law - The combination of those rules and principles of conduct promulgated by legislative authority, derived from court decisions and established by local custom
declared incompetent, or other person under some sorth of disability, jack i. hyatt
No Bill - This phrase, endorsed by a grand jury on the written indictment submitted to it for its approval, means that the evidence was found insufficient to indict
Noise Control Act - A act which gives government agencies the right to promulgate standards and regulations relating to abatement of noise emissions
Nonfeasance - Nonperformance of an act which should be performed; omission to perform a required duty or total neglect of duty
Nonjury trial - Trial before the court but without a jury
Motion to Suppress - Motion to prevent admission of evidence in a case.
Murder - Unlawful killing of a person with deliberate intent to kill.
Mutuality –Meeting of the minds of contracting persons as to the material terms of the agreement.
Necessarily Included Offense – An offense necessary to the commission of the greater offense.
Lesser Included Offense – Necessarily included offense.
Letters of Administration - Legal permission for an administrator to take control of the assets in the deceased person’s name.
Letters Testamentary – Letters of administration.
Liable - Legally responsible.
Libel - Published words or pictures that tend to injure a person’s reputation..
Lien - Legal claim against another person’s property as security for a debt.
Injunction A court order preventing one or more named parties from taking some action. A preliminary injunction often is issued to allow fact-finding, so a judge can determine whether a permanent injunction is justified.
Motion -- Request to a court made before, during, or after a trial
Motion in Limine - Motion not to allow certain evidence that might prejudice the jury.
Motion to Expunge – A motion to delete material from court records
Motion to Mitigate Sentence - Motion to reduce a sentence.
Motion to Seal - Motion to close records to public scrutiny.
Miranda Warning – Warning to a person under arrest that he or she has a right to remain silent; that any statement he or she does make may be used in evidence against him; that he or she has the right to the presence of an lawyer; and that if he or she cannot afford an lawyer, one will be appointed for him or her prior to any questioning, if he so desires.
Misdemeanor - Offense punishable by not more than one year in county jail and or a one thousand dollar fine.
Mistrial - Invalid trial, caused by fundamental error or inability of a jury to reach a verdict.
Mitigating Circumstances - Those facts which may be considered as reasons to reduce the degree of blame.
Insider of corporate debtor A director, officer, or person in control of the debtor; a partnership in which the debtor is a general partner; a general partner of the debtor; or a relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor.
Insider of individual debtor Any relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the Exempt assets Property that a debtor is allowed to retain, free from the claims of creditors Estoppel - A person's own act, or acceptance of facts, which preclude his or her later making claims to the contrary.
Et al. - And others.
Et Seq. - And the following.
Evidence - Testimony or exhibits received by the court at any stage of court proceedings.
Examination - The questioning of a witness under oath.
Exceptions - Declarations by either side in a civil or criminal case reserving the right to appeal a judge's ruling upon a motion or objection. Also, in regulatory cases, objections by either side to points made by the other side or to rulings by the agency or one of its hearing officers.
Exclusionary Rule - The rule preventing illegally obtained evidence, such as property found during an illegal search, from being used in any trial.
Execute - To complete the legal requirements such as signing before witnesses that make a will valid. Also, to execute a judgment or decree means to put the final
Opinion - A judge's written explanation of a decision of the court or of a majority of judges. A dissenting opinion disagrees with the majority opinion because of the reasoning and/or the principles of law on which the decision is based. A concurring opinion agrees with the decision of the court but offers further comment Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission - The agency established by OSHA to adjudicate enforcement actions under the Act
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